Cleopatra is a 1963 film directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. The screenplay was adapted by Sidney Buchman, Ben Hecht, Ranald MacDougall, and Joseph L. Mankiewicz from a book by Carlo Maria Franzero. The film starred Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, Rex Harrison, Roddy McDowall and Martin Landau. The music score was by Alex North. It was photographed in 70 mm Todd-AO by Leon Shamroy and Jack Hildyard. Cleopatra chronicles the struggles of Cleopatra VII, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperialist ambitions of Rome. Despite being a critical failure, it won four Academy Awards. It was the highest grossing film of 1963, earning US $26 million, yet made a loss due to its cost of $44 million, the only film ever to be the highest grossing film of the year yet to run at a loss. This is the film that "broke Hollywood." While studios would continue to finance major films, financial burdens would increasingly be shifted onto independent production companies as a way to buffer the "parent" studio from a loss. Indeed the financial situation at Fox was SO dire in the wake of Cleopatra, that they were forced to sell most of the studio's large backlot in Los Angeles to developers... over half their total property! This area today forms the core of the Century City area in Los Angeles.